Droughts and floods. Regions would be more vulnerable to droughts and floods, complicating agriculture, reducing harvests and causing food shortages. Industrialised countries will not sign a binding agreement without a significant contribution from those with high growth rates in the coming years. For their part, the poorest countries are demanding targets tailored to their situation, as well as financial support for their energy transition, as their current level of prosperity does not allow them to give up the affordable energy provided by fossil fuels. In an article published in the next inaugural issue of the Journal of the Association of Environmental and Resource Economists (Kellenberg and Levinson 2014), we examine a specific aie that will enable us to address these two problems – the Basel Convention on the Control of Cross-Border Movements of Hazardous Waste and Its Disposal. The convention was adopted to allay concerns about so-called “toxic trafficking” – the transport of waste from industrialized countries to regions of the world where disposal is probably less safe. Although hazardous waste disposal is a local problem and there is no need for international cooperation, trade restrictions may be a second better policy if some countries are unable to properly regulate waste disposal or prevent importation alone. As a result, the amendment to the Prohibition Convention prohibits all exports of hazardous waste from Schedule 7 countries (all OECD and EU countries, plus Liechtenstein) to all other countries not listed in Schedule 7. As part of this debate, important climate agreements have developed in the pursuit of emissions reductions. The Kyoto Protocol only required industrialized countries to reduce their emissions, while the Paris Agreement recognized that climate change was a common problem and called on all countries to set emission targets.
International institutions theoretically play a central role in global governance and interaction, states and international organizations rely on them to monitor international agreements; Governments use them to understand potential imbalances in multilateral relations, but history shows that they tend to respond more to narrow-minded groups that are supposed to succumb to protectionist claims. Kyoto Protocol, 2005. The Kyoto Protocol [PDF], adopted in 1997 and entered into force in 2005, was the first legally binding climate treaty. It called on industrialized countries to reduce emissions by an average of 5% from 1990 levels and set up a system to monitor countries` progress. But the treaty did not force developing countries, including the major CO2 emitters China and India, to take action. The United States signed the agreement in 1998, but never ratified it and then withdrew its signature.