The Paris Agreement has an “upward” structure unlike most international environmental treaties, which are “top down”, characterized by internationally defined standards and objectives that states must implement.  Unlike its predecessor, the Kyoto Protocol, which sets legal commitment targets, the Paris Agreement, which focuses on consensual training, allows for voluntary and national objectives.  Specific climate targets are therefore politically promoted and not legally binding. Only the processes governing reporting and revision of these objectives are imposed by international law. This structure is particularly noteworthy for the United States – in the absence of legal mitigation or funding objectives, the agreement is seen as an “executive agreement, not a treaty.” Since the 1992 UNFCCC treaty was approved by the Senate, this new agreement does not require further legislation from Congress for it to enter into force.  Under the Paris Agreement, each country must define, plan and report regularly on its contribution to warming mitigation.  There is no mechanism for a country to set an emission target for a specified date, but any target should go beyond the previous targets. The United States formally withdrew from the agreement the day after the 2020 presidential election, although President-elect Joe Biden said America would return to the agreement after his inauguration.  How each country is on track to meet its obligations under the Paris Agreement can be constantly monitored online (via the Climate Action Tracker and the climate clock). At the opening ceremony, he said the planet had record temperatures: “We are in a race against time. I call on all countries to join the agreement at the national level. The agreement, which calls on countries to combat climate change and limit global temperature rise to well below 2 degrees Celsius, will only come into force for 30 days, when at least 55 countries responsible for 55% of global greenhouse gas emissions will file their ratification instruments.
“If you`ve seen Syrian refugees, get ready to see climate refugees – it`ll be worse,” said Tosi Mpan-Mpanu of the Democratic Republic of Congo, the chairman of the group of least developed countries at the UN talks. Negotiators of the agreement stated that the INDCs presented at the time of the Paris conference were insufficient and found that “the estimates of aggregate greenhouse gas emissions in 2025 and 2030 resulting from the planned contributions at the national level are not covered by the least expensive scenarios of 2oC, but lead to a projected level of 55 gigatons in 2030.” and acknowledges that “much greater efforts to reduce emissions will be needed to keep the increase in the global average temperature below 2 degrees Celsius, by reducing emissions to 40 gigatonnes or 1.5 degrees Celsius.”  [Clarification needed] Since November 2020, 194 states and the European Union have signed the agreement.